inscript -> notes -> analog computing -> dutch analog computing
Deltar 1 analog computer, photo taken 1972
The Netherlands seems to have a long history with analog computing. The specialization arose from the need to measure and predict the region's complex water system, along with the industrial advancements made by Philips (founded 1891 in Eindhoven), and as a byproduct, became home to one of the cultural centers of early electronic music - The Institute of Sonology (a.k.a. Sonology).
Of particular note within the Institute of Sonology (founded 1967 in Utrecht, moved to the Royal Conservatoire of The Hague in 1986) is its staff of pioneers in the field of electronic and tape-based composition and electronic sound synthesis1. Among them, Dick Raaymakers, Frits Weiland, Ton Bruynel, Konrad Boehmer, Gottfried Michael Koenig, Rainer Riehn, Jaap Vink, Kees Tazelaar2. In the 1980s, Sonology began some of the first known experiments with digital computer control of analog sound generation equipment, specifically using the PDP-15 computers4. In the present day, Sonology maintains an entirely analog electronic music studio called BEA5, managed by Tazelaar. In addition to a fairly robust array of Studer tape machines, BEA5 has some very unique equipment including their custom voltage-controlled function generators5, their D&R Vision mixing desk (released 1993) and their multiple simpulataneous output Bruel & Kjaer third-octave band-pass filter (midcentury).
Hobsbawm's La Synthèse Humaine
1) Sonology Timeline⭧
2) listing of former staff at Sonology⭧
3) Joost Rekveld's essay "The Analog Art"⭧
4) Kees Tazelaar's video footage⭧ of Sonology in 1986, featuring many faculty
5) Kees Tazelaar's video demonstration⭧ of BEA5's VC Function Generators
music compilation from Sonology⭧ via Sub Rosa Label (Belgium)
Joost Rekveld on Dutch Analog Computing (video lecture)⭧
Joost's courses on art and technology'⭧